Digital Literacy and Digital Literacies.
Perceptions of Digital Literacy vary. Some are broad, others narrow, some make a clear distinction between ‘digital literacy’ and ‘digital literacies’ while others see the difference simply in terms of their grammatical context. For the purposes of this session, I would like to look at the idea of digital literacy as an overarching understanding or ‘literacy’ for the skills, competences, aptitudes and attitudes which make up the more specific ‘digital literacies’ we use to engage effectively online. In doing this, I hope to provide a broad context for what I have been asked to talk about today – the use of blogs and wikis and other social media as educational platforms.
From this perspective, digital literacy is a critical understanding of the impact of digital technologies on our society, its institutions and ourselves as individuals. These technologies have resulted in major changes in the way our society operates and the way we do things. For many, they are emancipatory, enabling us to do things more effectively (better), efficiently (quicker) and most importantly, to do things that we have not been able to do before. Living in a digital society means that a wide range of information is easily available to us, largely at any time and from any place. Current innovation revolves around increasing mobility, with smart phones, tablets and ever lighter laptop computers enabling us to remain in contact wherever we might be. However, as with all technologies, these advantages are balanced by disadvantages. The ‘dark side’ of the web is fraught with dangers. Cybercrime, perpetrated by faceless criminals in remote locations, identity theft, on-line bullying, troll attacks, hacking, phishing, grooming and viruses. Relatively new is the disturbing perception of governments around the world that leveraging the ability of these technologies to surveil not only their own populations, but also those of other countries, is an acceptable and perhaps even desirable practice. An important issue is raised here – the ability to do things that could not be done before does not mean that they are immune from day to day legal and ethical values. There is a need for innovations and the capabilities they provide to be given serious consideration in terms of ethical standards of use.
A person who is digitally literate would be expected to have a critical appreciation of both the advantages and disadvantages which arise in our rapidly developing digital world. This involves bringing critical cognitive capacities to bear when working in the digital domain so as to make effective use of the advantages offered while avoiding the dangers. In essence, a digitally literate person understands the nuances of the increasingly digital world we live in and is able to thrive in it, rather than simply survive.
In terms of digital literacies, we will look at the ideas of Wheeler (2012), Summey (2013), Belshaw (2012) and Rheingold (2012). In essence, these ‘literacies’ are the conceptual and digital tools and competencies that we use to interact effectively as citizens of a digital society.
Wheeler (2012) suggests that the following seven issues are important.
- social networking (ability to participating online, in formal and non-formal contexts)
- transliteracy (ability to operate across a wide range of digital platforms)
- maintaining privacy (staying safe online)
- managing identity (using multiple online identities in appropriate ways)
- creating content (eg – blogs, participating on wikis, discussion groups, forums, social networking, social bookmarking)
- organising and sharing content (posting to different platforms, saving and collating information online)
- reusing/re-purposing content (mashing, mixing)
- filtering and selecting content (finding, saving content in ways which enable us to find it easily)
- self broadcasting (establishing a recognisable online presence and sharing one’s own content with others across different platforms).
Rheingold (2012) has a simpler five point structure.
- Attention! The Fundamental Literacy
- Calibrating Your Crap Detector: What You Pay Attention to After You Pay Attention to Attention (critical awareness)
- What It Takes to Participate in Participatory Culture—and What You Get Out of It
- Clueing in to Collaboration: Making Virtual Communities, Collective Intelligence, and Knowledge Networks Work for You (and Us)
- What You Need to Know about Network Smarts—from Small Worlds to Privacy Settings, from Weak Ties to Social Capital.
Summey (2013:5) also provides five digital literacies:
- locating and filtering
- sharing and collaborating
- organising and curating
- creating and generating
- reusing and re-purposing.
Summey (2013, p 15) provides a diagrammatic representation of these.
Belshaw (2012) also emphasises the plurality of the digital literacies, providing eight ‘essential elements’ in which ‘skills, attitudes and aptitudes’ need to be developed (p 42). These eight broad elements are:
While there are differences between the way these authors see digital literacy, many of the ideas, be they expressed differently, have much in common.
Other diagrammatic representations of digital literacy include those below, from Futurelab (2010)
Definitions of Digital literacy from the futurelab Digital Literacy across the Curriculum handbook (2010: p.19)
What is clear from all these definitions is that digital literacy is closely tied to the idea of the participatory web and communication, where we are are not simple consumers of information but active participants and contributors to the richness of content available online. However, it is important to note that digital literacy is not necessarily confined to digital resources. Bawden (2008), commenting on Paul Gilster’s early work (1997) on digital literacy makes the point that the term is inclusive of of former technologies (such as print), given that new technologies live comfortably side by side with earlier ones and often exist in both formats. Thus, digital literacy can be seen as “an ability to understand and to use information from a variety of digital sources and regard it simply as literacy in the digital age. It is therefore the current form of the traditional idea of literacy per se – the ability to read, write, and otherwise deal with information using the technologies and formats of the time – and an essential life skill.” (p 18). Furthermore, “digital literacy involves the understanding of how to complement digital resources with such things as reference works in libraries, printed newspapers and magazines, radio and television, and printed works of literature” (p 19).
Web 1 and Web 2.0
Early use of the www involved looking for information online, reading and copying it. It is often called the ‘read’ web, given that most people interacted with it in this way. In about 2003, the way we saw and used the web began to change, given the proliferation of ways for ordinary people (people without specific web design skills) to contribute to the web. We talk of this as Web 2.0 or the ‘read/write’ web. Typical examples of web 2.0 include blogs, wikis, a wide range of social networking sites and forums.
Blogs and blogging
The word ‘blog’ is short for ‘weblog’, suggesting a way of journaling or ‘logging’ data online. The basic structure of a blog supports this, given that they provide a chronological record of posts, with the most recent at the top. Looked at from a more technical aspect, blogs are web-based multimedia platforms. As such, they enable authors to provide narratives consisting of text, images, video and audio. Blogs were one of the first instances of socially or user generated content applications to go mainstream. Blogs cover an extremely wide variety of topics. Some which have become newsworthy recently included that of policemen Richard Horton, sex worker Belle de Joer and schoolgirl Martha Payne, whose NeverSeconds blog was closed down by the Argyll and Bute council. The British Army has an official blog, as do many businesses and other organisations. There are a good number of teachers who blog about their workplaces, students who blog about university life, political blogs presenting a range of opinions and blogs used for presenting educational content of different kinds. Other blogs are used for commercial purposes, marketing photographs, art, ceramics and other goods. In the early days off blogging, blogs tended to be personal, making use of the essential ‘journal’ or ‘diary’ design for personal journalling. However, blogs have gone mainstream, with many newspaper reporters running blogs which provide a more ‘personal’ approach for their stories. This is a list of blogs from The Times. This page from Answer.com provides a number of reasons for blogging, together with ways that they can be used.
Blogging has been used widely in higher education. Beale (2007)carried out a mixed quantitative/qualitative analysis of 30 blogs used by final year HCI (Human computer interface) students. Their findings were that blogs were effective tools for supporting reflective practice, for connecting the classroom to the outside world and facilitating a greater level of collegial feedback than would usually be the case. Beale recommends the use of blogs as effective and engaging approaches for supporting other educational practices. Rourke and Coleman (2009, 888) also see blogs as effective teaching and learning tools “for engaging students proactively in a collaborative learning space”. Their work was carried out with post graduate (M level, n=10) students at a college of fine art in New South Wales.
Blogging can be controversial, especially when bloggers post about their workplace. A number of employees have been dismissed for blogging, including Ellen Simonetti, an air hostess working for Delta, Joe Gordon who allegedly brought his company (Waterstones) into disrepute and Catherine Sanderson, a British worker in Paris, again for allegedly bringing her company into disrepute. Sanderson was awarded £30,000 for unfair dismissal.
What emerges from this is that blogging about one’s workplace is not a good idea, even when a pseudonym is used. Interestingly, pseudonyms are common in blogs, providing some level of anonymity, although as we have seen, this can be broken given enough small clues within posts which can provide a crumb trail to one’s true identity.
One of the best understood strengths of blogs as educational tools is as reflective journals. Rourke and Coleman (2009, 895), used Bartlett-Bragg’s (2003) 5 stage Blogging Process model to analysis of the blogging process with the postgraduate College of Fine Arts students. They were able to identify introspection, reflective monologues and reflective dialogue as features of student blogging. Rettburg (2009) regards blogging as a good opportunity for students to experience writing in the real world. A growing number of university courses are requiring students to reflect in depth on their practice on a regular basis. While blogs are personal, the fact that they are public spaces where one’s work is open to scrutiny and comment by members of the blogosphere suits this practice, ensuring that bloggers take care to ensure that their posts are carefully constructed. Another strength of blogs is that they provide a wide range of attractive templates themes, widgets and other add-ons, allowing a high level of personalisation which is not possible with writing platforms like word processors. Blog platforms provide these as part of the service, with some specific themes and add ons available at a cost. Many also provide the option to personalise web address – for instance, Monty.com or Monty.org as opposed to wordpress.com. See The impact of multimedia on the gathering and dissemination of news for information on how blogging has changed news gathering and reporting and Blogs as reflective writing tools on the use of blogs in education.
See this post from The Next Web for 15 recommended blogging platforms.
Technorati’s top 100 Blogs for 2013 are listed here.
Blogs in Plain English – Lee Lefever, Commoncraft
Microblogging – Twitter (and sms)
One needs to at least mention micro-blogging in any discussion of blogging. There are a number of these, of which Twitter is best known. These consist of short posts not exceed 140 characters. However, the limitations in length are overcome by the ability to post frequently. These platforms are popular, notwithstanding the fact that they do not take advantage of the ‘rich’ multimedia affordances (images, audio, video) that other digital platforms offer. Twitter offers the potential to be an effective community of practice, given that the underpinning architecture enables it to identify people with similar interests and provide recommendations with regard to who to follow.
Hafner and Jones (2012) contest the oft held belief that text based digital communications are an ‘imperfect replica’ of transitional modes of communication and that claims that they lack richness are based on a false deficit model of analysis. People do very different things with text based digital communication than in normal written or verbal conversations, Additionally, simple sms type digital communication has resulted in a wide range of new interactions which were not possible up till now.
The developer of Blogger, Evan Williams, tried to ‘add value’ to the blogging experience by developing audio blogging, by which bloggers could make their posts ‘more expressive’ by embedding recordings of their own voices. There are a number of apps which enable one to do this easily, including Audio Boo. However, the idea of audio blogging has never really taken off. Nor have other ‘rich’ media approaches. Hafner and Jones (73), point out that even though computers come standard with webcams and most IM clients, and that video chat is supported by many social networking clients, “very few people actually engage in this form of interaction.” However, another development by Williams, the micro-blogging platform Twitter with it limit of 140 characters per post, has proved extremely successful in spite of it providing little in the way of richness that other digital media provide.
The reason for the success of Twitter and other so-called ‘impoverished’ mediums like sms is that of low transactional costs – essentially, the effort and hassle involved in transacting or sharing information. The richer the medium, the higher the transactional costs involved, given that we have to attend to more modes while engaging with others. A face to face conversation involves a wide range of niceties – small talk, showing interest and attention, ensuring that our gestures, facial expressions and voice quality are appropriate and that our responses are delivered within the time frame expected by the person we are talking to. A text based communication, be it a message (sms) or a tweet, cuts across these demands, enabling us to concentrate of the essential message (which could include taking more time to consider how replies or questions are framed) and enables us to do other things (multitasking) at the same time.
There are other reasons for the popularity of tweeting and sms. For young people, it provides a way of communicating with friends without their parents listening in. Low cost interaction via sms and Twitter also provide new affordances – “increased opportunities for monomodal communications using only text” (Hafner and Jones, 2012:74) which support the ability to communicate and maintain relationships more regularly but in less detailed ways. Low transaction cost mechanisms support sharing of thoughts, feelings and ideas. They suggest that what people are mostly doing when they share is less a matter of transacting information as maintaining connections with friends – doing friendship.
18h40 Cheesecake: hihi
19h08 Snowbread: wowo
21:33 Cheesecake: kaka~~~
23h05 Snowbread: ~^.^~
This series of interchanges between two friends, according to Hafner and Jones (74), is not a real conversation but a process of maintaining a virtual connection, as suggested by earlier work by Berg, Taylor and Harper (2005), in which they identified young people’s text messages to one another not so much as an exchange information but rather as the exchange of tokens of friendship.
In others ways, low cost texting is also instrumental and efficient – asking a partner to pick up a packet of sugar, informing a friend that one will be late, telling the boss that a report has been completed. Before texting, doing these interactions involved long and complicated phone conversations and a trip down the corridor and knocking on the boss’s door.
The limitations of getting a message across in 140 or so characters has already been seen to force users to be creative and imaginative in terms of using emoticons, short forms and newly created words. In an innovative experiment by the University of Iowa, applicants for the School of Business were told to submit admissions essays in tweet form, with the promise of a scholarship for the most creative effort. The winner submitted a haiku, “creatively combining one of the newest forms of communication with one of the oldest forms” (Snee, 2011 – in Hafner and Jones, 78).
It is important to understand that these different platforms are used in different ways, for different purposes and with different audiences. The way we communicate using text is very different to the way we communicate using a blog, or even e-mail and Twitter. The levels of formality are different, given different audiences and the kind of topics discussed by them. Wheeler talks about transliteracy, the ability to work confidently across a range of mediums, understanding their different contexts. Belshaw (2013) also talks about the ability to move quickly and seamlessly between digital environments when talking about the cultural aspect of digital literacies.
We looked earlier at blogs as multimedia platforms. This lends them to specialist use as we have seen from the examples of commercial blogs as platforms for showcasing art and other artefacts for sale. However, there are a number of specialist blogs, dedicated to showcasing things like photographs, of which Flickr, Instagram and Blip Photo are examples. Those who prefer video produce and share video blogs. The term ‘vlogging‘ is used. YouTube is perhaps the best known video sharing site. Here is a guide to video blogging from Mashable.
All of these sites are open to the public. However, the content available on them is not necessarily so, except in terms of the viewer having the right to look at, watch, recommend to others and bookmark for later watching. Essentially, copyright applies. However, the ease with which anything online can be downloaded makes a mockery of copyright. This is an important issue for those who like to share their work with a view to selling it, such as photographers, musicians and actors. In reality, copyright as artists and writers have enjoyed it in the analogue world, is no longer fit for purpose and creators have moved forward, with more flexible models of copyright which make it easy for owners to share their work in more creative way. The copyright model best suited for the social online world is that of Creative Commons. This enables the owner to stipulate the exact conditions under which his or her work can be shared. Six basic models are provided, ranging from full copyright (all rights reserved) , through some rights reserved to an open ‘all rights granted’ licence. The range of licences can be seen here.
What we see from this is that there is a wide range of blog categories on the web in terms of the specific media that they specialise in and, within these, special areas of interest. However, most blogs provide a mix of mediums. Photos (and video) on Flickr will often be described using text, and include comments from followers. Travel blogs will often use photos together with text, audio and sometimes video to provide a record of each day of a holiday or other such trip. These provide a multimedia record of events, which can be shared across the web.
Wikis are similar to blogs being user generated multimedia capable social media. The main difference between them is that while blogs are mainly personal, wikis are designed specifically as collaborative platforms. As such, they lend themselves well to project and other collaborative endeavours and to situations where diverse data needs to be collated and coordinated in one place. Well known wikis include Wikipedia, WikiHow, Wictionary and Urban Dictionary. Like blogs, wikis are used by a variety of individuals and organisations. The well known ‘social’ wikis are open, allowing anyone to register and post online. This involves editing existing posts to correct information or to update by removing out of date content or providing newer information. However, wikis can also be closed, ensuring that only registered users can update information, and even that they are the only people who can see it. This makes wikis especially useful for schools and other organisations where privacy is important.
Both blogs and wikis provide the facility for readers to comment on posts. They also enable writers to create tags – usually words which ‘identify’ the nature or features of the post, enabling any posts with that identifier to be located using a search. This post, for instance, has eleven tags, including ‘blogs’, ‘wikis’ and ‘digital literacy’. I have also used a ‘widget’ which adds a tag cloud on the right hand side. Clicking on any of these lists all the the posts on the blog which have that tag. Tags provide a new way to ‘file’ information, without having to create folders. Tags are informal and personal. There is no fixed convention for tag names. They provide a common sense way of identifying and enabling quick searches for a topic, based on folksonomies. The word folksonomy is a combination of ‘folk’ and ‘taxonomy’ and was coined by Thomas Vander Wel, an information design specialist. Tagging is used widely on the web and features largely on applications which value social networking and social bookmarking. Social bookmarking sites like Delicious and Diigo use tags to identify digital artefacts so as to simplify the task or organising and creating large bodies of information. This link takes you to my Delicious site, and shows all the web pages and other digital artefacts that I have bookmarked for this particular session, using the tags ‘blogs’ and ‘wikis’. You will notice that there is a range of tags for each, including other cources that I teach on, such as the M.Sc Learning and Digital Literacies course (LDL), the PGCE course (pgce) and the B.Sc Education course (bsced). Other tags provide further identifiers to make the articles easy to find. Searches can be narrowed by using more than a single tags, as shown here where the # sign is used to identify only artefacts which have army, pgce , ldl and bsced tags. Using social bookmarking sites like Delicious is invaluable for anyone who needs to collect, organise, curate, collate and share digital information. These can be shared directly with others, and are searchable by anyone using the bookmarking service. Any kind of digital artefact can be bookmarked, including web pages, academic articles from journals, photographs and videos. Many electronic artefacts make bookmarking easy by providing links to popular bookmarking services. These are usually at the bottom of the article. See graphic below, which comes from the BBC News site.
However, not all sites provide this courtesy. This being the case, when setting up your social bookmarking service, drag the provided ‘button’ onto the favourites bar of your browser. The graphic below shows a link to Delicious on my favourites bar.
Social bookmarking in plain English.
Wikis have other important characteristics, the most important one being the rollback feature. A ‘history’ of every edit of each page is kept on a wiki, enabling the administrator to roll back to previous versions of the page should a user inadvertently delete it or make inappropriate comments or changes. Furthermore, the administrator and each user can request notifications of each and every update. Most users turn this feature off, but it is useful for administrators who need to keep track of activity on the site. Wikis lend themselves well to use in education. They are ideal platforms for any kind of collaborative activity, such as project work. Users can create and edit their own pages, using the wiki for group planning, discussion, rough posts and the final submission. They provide full support for multimedia, enabling the inclusion of text, images, video and audio files. Wikis have no boundaries, enabling them to be used for projects across the school, across schools, countries and continents, allowing cross-cultural exchanges and sharing. They are also good platforms for collating information, such as teaching resources, lesson plans and lesson ideas.
Wikis in Plain English. Lee Lefever, Commoncraft.
Web 2.0 (the ‘social’ or ‘participatory’ web) provides a secure platform for open discussion (blogs) and collaboration (wikis). This offers opportunities for both teachers and students to work in new ways which extend and enrich learning. Blogs offer unique opportunities to write for a world wide audience. At the same time they provide opportunities for others, be they fellow students, teachers or people interested in the same area of endeavour, to provide feedback. Wikis offer opportunities to collaborate with others across the world, developing resources which others can use, edit and augment. The emergence of MOOCs indicates that open sharing of high grade resources is the way forward. The use of social media in the form of blogs and wikis supports this, providing a way for small players with unique and useful insights to make a contribution. Social networking provides opportunities for the development of Communities of Practices, be they formal or informal and active and responsible participation in these servers to develop our understanding of the important digital literacies which are essential for us to thrive in a rapidly changing and increasingly networked world.
List of references
Bawden, D. (2008) Origins and Concepts of Digital Literacy. In Lankshear, C. & Knobel, M. (2008) Digital Literacies: Concepts, Policies and Practices.
Belshaw, D. (2013) The Essential Elements of Digital Literacies.
Hafner, C. & Jones, R. (2012) Understanding Digital Literacies. A practical introduction.
Paul, J. (2012) New Literacies and Their Affordances. Primary Blog.
Paul, J. (2009) Using wikis as learning tools. Primary Blog.
Rettburg, J. (2009) Blogging as a Tool for Reflection on Learning.
Rourke, J. & Coleman, K. (2009) An emancipating space: Reflective and collaborative blogging.
Summey, D. (2013) Developing Digital Literacies. A Framework for Professional Learning.
Wheeler, S. (2010) What are digital literacies?
Wheeler, S. (2012) Digital Literacies for Engagement in Emerging Online Cultures.
Other useful resources
Beetham, H., McGill, L. & Littlejohn, A. (2009) Thriving in the 21st Century: Learning Literacies for the Digital Age.
Belshaw, D. (2012) What is ‘digital literacy’? A Pragmatic investigation. Durham theses, Durham University. Available at Durham E-Theses online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/3446/
Lankshear, C. & Knobel, M. (2008) Digital Literacies: Concepts, Policies and Practices.
Erstad, O. (2011) Citizens Navigating in Literate Worlds. The Case of Digital Literacy. In Thomas, M. (2011) (Ed.) Deconstructing Digital Natives. Young People, Technology and the New Literacies.
Wan, N. (2012) Can we teach digital natives digital literacy? Computers & Education, Volume 59(3) 1065-1078.
Buckingham. D. (2008) Defining Digital Literacy. What do Young People Need to Know About Digital Media? (Also in Lankshear, C. & Knobel, M. (2008) Digital Literacies: Concepts, Policies and Practices, page 73).
Hague, C. & Payton, S. (2010) Digital Literacies across the Curriculum. Futurelab.
Jisc (2011) Developing Digital Literacies: Briefing Paper in support of JISC Grant Funding 4/11
Jisc (2013) Developing Digital Literacies.
Prensky, M. (2001) Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants.
Utrecht, J. (2009) Digital Literacy vs Networked Literacy. The Thinking Stick blog.
Utrecht, J. (2009) See this diagram from the post entitled The age of Composition.
Wheeler, S. (2013) Can we teach digital literacies? Blog
Web n’ Circle Blog – more diagramatic representations of digital literacy.
Digital Futures in Teacher Education (DfTE)
Journal articles on the Educational use of wikis.
Boulos, M. & Wheeler, S. (2007) The emerging Web 2.0 social software: an enabling suite of sociable technologies in health and health care education.
Cole, M. (2009) Using wiki technology to support student engagement: Lessons from the trenches.
Désilets, A., Paquet, S., and Vinson, N.G. (2005) Are wikis useable? International Symposium on Wikis. October 17-18, 2005. San Diego, California, USA. NRC 48272.
Godwin-Jones, R. (2003) Emerging Technologies.Blogs and Wikis: Environments for On-line Collaborartion. Language Learning and Technology, 7(2), 12-16.
Grant, L. (2006) Using Wikis in Schools. A Case Study. Futurelab.
Guth, S. (2007). Wiki in Education: Is Public Better? WikiSym 07 Converence, Montreal, October 2007.
Haldane, M. (2007) Interactivity and the digital whiteboard: weaving the fabric of learning. Learning, Media and Technology 32(3) 257-270.
Birka Jaksch, Saskia-Janina Kepp, and Christa Womser-Hacker.(2008) Integration of a wiki for collaborative knowledge development in an elearning context for university teaching. Lecture notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5298.
Lamb, B. (2004) Wide open spaces: Wikis, ready or not.
Moskaliuk, J. (2009) Wiki supported learning and knowledge building: effects of incongruity bertween knowledge and information.
Nuutinen, J. (2010) From mindtools to social mindtools: Colaborative writing and woven stories
Neumann, David L. & Hood, Michelle. (2009) The effects of using a wiki on student engagement and learning of report writing skills in a university statistics course. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 25(3). 382-398.
Parker, K. & Chao, J. (2007) Wiki as a teaching tool.
Wang, C. & Turner D. (2004) Extending the wiki paradigm for use in the classroom.
Wen-Chung Shih et al. (2008) Wiki-based rapid prototyping for teaching-material design in e-Learning grids
Wheeler, S. & Wheeler, D. (2007) Evaluating Wiki as a tool to promote quality academic writing skills.
Wheeler, S. (2008) All Changing: The Social Web and the Future of Higher Education (a tale of two keynotes).
Wheeler, S., Yeomans, P. & Wheeler, D. (2008) The good, the bad and the wiki: Evaluating student-generated content for collaborative learning.
Wheeler, S. & Boulos, K. (2008) Mashing, Burning, Mixing and the Destructive Creativity of Web 2.0: Applications for Medical Education.
Wheeler, S. & Wheeler, D. (2009) Using wikis to promote quality learning in teacher training.
Journal articles on Blogs and Blogging
Beale, R. (2007) Blogs, reflective practice and student-centered learning.
Boulos, M & Wheeler, S. (2007) The emerging Web 2.0 social software: an enabling suite.
Brescia, W. & Miller, M. (2005) What’s it Worth? The Perceived Benefits of Instructional Blogging. Electronic Journal for the Integration of Technology in Education, Vol. 5
Chan, K-K. & Ridgeway, J. (2005?) Blog: a tool for reflective practice in teacher education?Chandra, V. & Lloyd, M. (2008) The methodological nettle: ICT and student achievement. British Journal of Educational Technology, V 39 (6), 1087–1098.
Downes, S. (2004) Educational Blogging.
Drezner, D. & Farrell, H. (2008). Blogs, politics and power: a special issue of Public Choice. Public Choice 134: 1–13.
Ebner, M., Lienhardt, C., Rohs, M. & Meyer, I. (2010) Microblogs in Higher Education – A chance to facilitate informart and process-oriented learning? Computers and Education. 55, 92-100.
Gill, K. (2004) How can we measure the influence of the blogosphere?
Harris, H. & Park, S. Educational useages of podcasting.
Hernández-Ramos, P. (2004) Web Logs and Online Discussions as Tools to Promote Reflective Practice. The Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 3 (1).
Huffaker, D. (2005) Let them Blog: Using weblogs to promote Literacy in K-12 Education.
Kamel Boulos, M., Inocencio Maramba, I. & and Wheeler, S. (2006) Wikis, blogs and podcasts: a new generation of Web-based tools for virtual collaborative clinical practice and education. BMC Medical Education 2006, 6:41
Karger, D.R. & Quanb, D. (2005) What would it mean to blog on the semantic web? Journal of Web Semantics, 3 (2-3), 147-157.
Kennedy, R. (2004) Weblogs, Social Software, and New Interactivity on the Web. Psychiatric Services, 55(3).
Lee, M., McLoughan, C. & Chan, A. Talk the Talk: Learner generated podcasts as catalysts for knowledge creation.
Nataatmadja, I & Dyson, L. E. The Role of Podcasts in Students’ Learning.
Mortensen, T. & Walker, J.(2004) Blogging thoughts: personal publication as an online research tool.
Parker, C. & Pfeiffer, S. (2005) Videoblogging: Content to the max. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia. IEEE Multimedia, April-June.
Probert, E. (2009) Information Literacy Skills: Teacher understandings and practice. Computers and Education 53, 24-33.
Wheeler, S & Lambert-Heggs, W. (2008) The MentorBlog Project: Connecting student teachers and their mentors through social software
Wheeler, S. (2008) All Changing: The Social Web and the Future of Higher Education (a tale of two keynotes).
Wheeler, S. (2013) Blogging as literacy. Learning with ‘e’s Blog.
Williams, J. & Jacobs, J. (2004) Exploring the use of blogs as learning spaces in the higher education sector. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 20(2), 232-247.
Useful background reading
Buckingham, D. (2007) Beyond Technology: Children’s learning in the age of digital culture. Polity Press
Kalantzis, M. & Cope, B. (2012) Literacies